The Independent Project Analysis (IPA) finalized this study in December of 2022 which expands on an earlier 2008 study that found that union labor is more productive than open shop labor and projects that employed union labor cost less, despite the higher average all-in wage rate paid to union labor. Other studies have similarly found that higher craft labor costs for prevailing wage projects, which often reflect union wage rates, do not result in higher total project costs than non-prevailing wage projects. The current study confirmed the findings from the earlier IPA study and examined some of the underlying differences in union labor versus open shop labor that may explain the differences in productivity as well as the overall effect on project outcomes. To read the full study CLICK HERE